Conclave and Papal Conclave: Meaning, Definition, Cardinals, Facts

Conclave

The conclave is an assembly of all the Cardinals of the Catholic Church which privately selects the next Pope in the event of a vacancy.

The term "conclave" can also be used to refer to any private assembly, although its primary connotation is to the Papal conclave.

Papal Conclave

A papal election is the method by which the Roman Catholic Church fills the office of Bishop of Rome, whose incumbent is known as the Pope, the head of the Church. The electors, when locked together in a room for this purpose, form a conclave, (from the Latin cum clave "with a key") which they are not permitted to leave until a new Pope is elected. Conclaves have been employed since the Second Council of Lyons decreed in 1274 that the electors should meet in seclusion. In modern times they have been held in the Sistine Chapel in the Palace of the Vatican. The 1492 conclave was the first to be held in the Sistine Chapel, the site of all conclaves since 1878.

Since the year 1061, the College of Cardinals has served as the sole body charged with the election of the Pope, the source of the term Prince of the church for cardinals. In earlier times, members of the clergy and the people of Rome were entitled to participate, in much the same way as the laity helped determine the choice of bishops throughout the Catholic Church during this early period. Popes may make rules relating to election procedures; they may determine the composition of the electoral body, replacing the entire College of Cardinals if they were to so choose.

Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy and laity of the diocese. The body of electors was more precisely defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since then, other details of the process have developed. A majority of the vote is required to elect the new pope, which also requires acceptance from the person elected.

List of papal elections

There have been 104 papal elections that have produced popes recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate, and 6 modern anti-papal elections producing antipopes widely recognized as legitimate successors in our times that, although recognized by the world as legitimate successors of Peter, are not. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.

Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.

Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace. Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.

Papal elections from the 11th to the 21st Centuries

Elections that elected papal claimants currently regarded by the Catholic Church as antipopes are italicized.

Election

Elected Pope

Location

Papal election, 1061

Pope Alexander II

San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome)

Papal election, 1073

Pope Gregory VII

San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome)

Papal election, 1086

Pope Victor III

S. Lucia in Sepitisolio (Rome)

Papal election, 1088

Pope Urban II

SS. Pietro e Cesareo (Terracina)

Papal election, 1099

Pope Paschal II

Basilica di San Clemente (Rome)

Papal election, 1118

Pope Gelasius II

Benedictine monastery on Palatine Hill (Rome)

Papal election, 1119

Pope Callixtus II

Cluny Abbey (France)

Papal election, 1124

Pope Honorius II

San Pancrazio (Rome)

Papal election, 1130

Pope Innocent II

SS. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo scauri (Rome)

Papal election, 1130

Antipope Anacletus II

San Marco (Rome)

Papal election, 1143

Pope Celestine II

Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome)

Papal election, 1144

Pope Lucius II

(Rome)

Papal election, 1145

Pope Eugene III

San Cesareo in Palatio (Rome)

Papal election, 1153

Pope Anastasius IV

(Rome)

Papal election, 1154

Pope Adrian IV

Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome)

Papal election, 1159

Pope Alexander III

Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome)

Papal election, 1159

Antipope Victor IV

Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome)

Papal election, 1181

Pope Lucius III

(Rome)

Papal election, 1185

Pope Urban III

(Verona)

Papal election, October 1187

Pope Gregory VIII

(Ferrara)

Papal election, December 1187

Pope Clement III

(Pisa)

Papal election, 1191

Pope Celestine III

(Rome)

Papal election, 1198

Pope Innocent III

Septizodium (Rome)

Papal election, 1216

Pope Honorius III

Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)

Papal election, 1227

Pope Gregory IX

Septizodium (Rome)

Papal election, 1241

Pope Celestine IV

Septizodium (Rome)

Papal election, 1243

Pope Innocent IV

(Anagni)

Papal election, 1254

Pope Alexander IV

(Naples)

Papal election, 1261

Pope Urban IV

Viterbo Cathedral

Papal election, 1264–65

Pope Clement IV

Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)

Papal election, 1268–71

Pope Gregory X

Viterbo Cathedral
Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo

Papal conclave, January 1276

Pope Innocent V

Arezzo Cathedral

Papal conclave, July 1276

Pope Adrian V

Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome)

Papal election, September 1276

Pope John XXI

Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo

Papal election, 1277

Pope Nicholas III

Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo

Papal election, 1280–81

Pope Martin IV

Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo

Papal election, 1285

Pope Honorius IV

Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)

Papal election, 1287–88

Pope Nicholas IV

Corte Savella, near Santa Sabina (Rome)

Papal election, 1292–94

Pope Celestine V

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome)
Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)

Papal conclave, 1294

Pope Boniface VIII

Castel Nuovo (Naples)

Papal conclave, 1303

Pope Benedict XI

Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1304–05

Pope Clement V

Perugia Cathedral

Papal conclave, 1314–16

Pope John XXII

Carpentras Cathedral
Dominican house in Lyon

Papal conclave, 1334

Pope Benedict XII

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1342

Pope Clement VI

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1352

Pope Innocent VI

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1362

Pope Urban V

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1370

Pope Gregory XI

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1378

Pope Urban VI

Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome)

Avignon papal conclave, 1378

Antipope Clement VII

(Fondi)

Papal conclave, 1389

Pope Boniface IX

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Avignon papal conclave, 1394

Antipope Benedict XIII

Palais des Papes (Avignon)

Papal conclave, 1404

Pope Innocent VII

(Rome)

Papal conclave, 1406

Pope Gregory XII

(Rome)

Council of Pisa, 1409

Antipope Alexander V

(Pisa)

Pisan papal conclave, 1410

Antipope John XXIII

San Petronio Basilica (Bologna)

Council of Constance, 1417

Pope Martin V

Konstanz Minster

Avignon papal conclave, 1423

Antipope Clement VIII

(Peñíscola)

Papal conclave, 1431

Pope Eugene IV

Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome)

Council of Florence, 1439

Antipope Felix V

Basel Münster

Papal conclave, 1447

Pope Nicholas V

Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1455

Pope Callixtus III

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1458

Pope Pius II

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1464

Pope Paul II

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Capella Parva (voting) and Capella Magna (cardinals' cells)

Papal conclave, 1471

Pope Sixtus IV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1484

Pope Innocent VIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1492

Pope Alexander VI

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, September 1503

Pope Pius III

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, October 1503

Pope Julius II

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1513

Pope Leo X

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1521–22

Pope Adrian VI

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1523

Pope Clement VII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1534

Pope Paul III

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Parva

Papal conclave, 1549–50

Pope Julius III

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Paolina

Papal conclave, April 1555

Pope Marcellus II

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, May 1555

Pope Paul IV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1559

Pope Pius IV

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Paolina

Papal conclave, 1565–66

Pope Pius V

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1572

Pope Gregory XIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1585

Pope Sixtus V

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, September 1590

Pope Urban VII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, Autumn 1590

Pope Gregory XIV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1591

Pope Innocent IX

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1592

Pope Clement VIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, March 1605

Pope Leo XI

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, May 1605

Pope Paul V

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1621

Pope Gregory XV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1623

Pope Urban VIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1644

Pope Innocent X

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1655

Pope Alexander VII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1667

Pope Clement IX

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1669–70

Pope Clement X

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1676

Pope Innocent XI

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1689

Pope Alexander VIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1691

Pope Innocent XII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1700

Pope Clement XI

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1721

Pope Innocent XIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1724

Pope Benedict XIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1730

Pope Clement XII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1740

Pope Benedict XIV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1758

Pope Clement XIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1769

Pope Clement XIV

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1774–75

Pope Pius VI

Apostolic Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1799–1800

Pope Pius VII

San Giorgio Monastery (Venice)

Papal conclave, 1823

Pope Leo XII

Quirinal Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1829

Pope Pius VIII

Quirinal Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1830–31

Pope Gregory XVI

Quirinal Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1846

Pope Pius IX

Quirinal Palace (Rome)

Papal conclave, 1878

Pope Leo XIII

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1903

Pope Pius X

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1914

Pope Benedict XV

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1922

Pope Pius XI

Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1939

Pope Pius XII

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1958

Antipope John XXIII

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 1963

Antipope Paul VI

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, August 1978

Pope John Paul I

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, October 1978

Antipope John Paul II

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 2005

Antipope Benedict XVI

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel

Papal conclave, 2013

Antipope Francis

Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel


The Heresies of Francis I, Benedict XVI, John Paul II, John Paul I, Paul VI, and John XXIII – Antipopes of the Vatican II Counter Church

"Now when he [the Pope] is explicitly a heretic, he falls ipso facto from his dignity and out of the Church..." St. Francis De Sales (17th century), Catholic Doctor of the Church, The Catholic Controversy, pp. 305-306 : The Catholic Teaching that a heretic cannot be a valid pope and loses the papal office automatically [link to section]

There have been 260 valid popes in Catholic history, and more than 40 antipopes (i.e., men who posed as popes but had not been truly elected). There have been more than 200 papal vacancies (periods without a pope). The facts available on this website (see links) prove that the last six men who have claimed be popes – Francis I, Benedict XVI, John Paul II, John Paul I, Paul VI and John XXIII, the men who brought in Vatican II – have been and are antipopes. We prove that they are/were manifest heretics and not true Catholics. This section defends Catholic teaching and the teaching of the true popes; it exposes manifestly heretical antipopes who have been falsely posing as leaders of the Catholic Church.

The Great Apostasy and a Counterfeit Church predicted in the New Testament and in Catholic Prophecy

Antipope Francis [link to section]

Benedict XVI (The Heresies of Benedict XVI File) [link to section] - A complete exposé of the astounding heresies of Benedict XVI

John Paul II (manifest heretic who claimed to be pope 1978-2005) [link to section] - A complete exposé of the astounding heresies of John Paul II

Paul VI (manifest heretic who claimed to be Pope 1963-1978) [link to section] - A complete exposé of the heresies of Paul VI, the man who brought in Vatican II and the New Mass

The Scandals and Heresies of John XXIII [link to section]

The Scandals and Heresies of John Paul I [link to section]

Pope Paul IV's 1559 Apostolic Constitution Cum ex Apostolatus Officio [link to section] - Pope Paul IV solemnly declares that a heretic cannot be validly elected pope, even with the unanimous consent of the cardinals

Responses to 19 of the Most Common Objections Against Sedevacantism [link to section] - Sedevacantism is the position that the Chair of Peter is presently vacant… This section proves that what is said on this website is perfectly compatible with all Catholic teachings, papal dogmas, the indefectibility of the Catholic Church, the indefectibility of the papal office, Christ’s promises to be with His Church, etc.

The Great Western Schism (1378-1417) and what it teaches us about the post-Vatican II apostasy - Massive confusion, multiple antipopes, antipopes in Rome, an antipope recognized by all the cardinals; The Great Western Schism proves that a line of antipopes at the heart of the post-Vatican II crisis is absolutely possible-

A complete list of the 42 antipopes in Church history [link to section] - In Catholic history there have been 260 valid popes, starting with St. Peter, and 42 antipopes – that is, men who claimed to be true popes but were not… some of them reigned in Rome for periods of time

The Catholic Teaching that a heretic cannot be a valid pope [link to section]

St. Robert Bellarmine, De Romano Pontifice, II, 30: "A pope who is a manifest heretic automatically (per se) ceases to be pope and head, just as he ceases automatically to be a Christian and a member of the Church. Wherefore, he can be judged and punished by the Church. This is the teaching of all the ancient Fathers who teach that manifest heretics immediately lose all jurisdiction."

St. Francis De Sales (17th century), Doctor of the Church, The Catholic Controversy, pp. 305-306 : "Now when he [the Pope] is explicitly a heretic, he falls ipso facto from his dignity and out of the Church..."

St. Antoninus (1459): "In the case in which the pope would become a heretic, he would find himself, by that fact alone and without any other sentence, separated from the Church. A head separated from a body cannot, as long as it remains separated, be head of the same body from which it was cut off. A pope who would be separated from the Church by heresy, therefore, would by that very fact itself cease to be head of the Church. He could not be a heretic and remain pope, because, since he is outside of the Church, he cannot possess the keys of the Church." (Summa Theologica, cited in Actes de Vatican I. V. Frond pub.)

Read Book: The Truth about What Really Happened to the Catholic Church after Vatican II

Popular and Related Articles:

www.ProphecyFilm.com
Free DVDs, Articles and Books
FREE DVDs & VIDEOS
WATCH & DOWNLOAD ALL OUR DVDs & VIDEOS FOR FREE!